Bone tumors – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Bone tumors form when a bone cell divides uncontrollably and forms a mass or tumor. If the tumor remains confined and doesn’t […]

Hypercalcemia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With hypercalcemia, hyper -means over and -calc- refers to calcium, and -emia refers to the blood, so hypercalcemia means higher than normal calcium levels in the blood, generally over 10.5 mg/dL. Now, calcium exists as an ion with a double positive charge – Ca2+ – and it’s the most abundant metal in the human body. So I know […]

Disseminated intravascular coagulation – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Disseminated intravascular coagulation, or DIC, describes a situation in which the process of hemostasis, which is when after blood vessel wall injury, liquid blood rapidly becomes a gel, called coagulation or clotting, starts to run out of control. When this happens, lots and lots of blood clots start to form in blood vessels serving various organs, leading to […]

Postpartum hemorrhage – causes, symptoms, treatment, pathology

Postpartum hemorrhage is a significant loss of blood after giving birth, and it’s the number one reason for maternal morbidity and maternal death around the world. Specifically it’s defined as losing more than 500ml of blood after a vaginal delivery or more than 1000ml after a cesarean section delivery. Of course, deliveries can be messy and it’s impossible […]

Varicella zoster virus – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

On our Youtube channel, you’ll find a limited selection of pathology and patient videos. With Osmosis Prime, you’ll get access to over 700 videos including complete coverage of pathology and physiology and a growing collection of pharmacology and clinical reasoning topics. Try it free today. Varicella zoster virus is one of the herpesviruses and it causes two diseases […]

Endometrial cancer – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Endometrial carcinoma, or endometrial cancer, is when malignant or cancer cells arise in the glands of the endometrium, the lining of the […]

Insomnia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Have you ever had one of those nights where you just couldn’t seem to fall asleep? While that happens to everyone every once in awhile, people with insomnia have to deal with these symptoms night after night. Some people with insomnia have trouble falling asleep, whereas others wake up throughout the night, and struggle to fall back asleep, […]

Gastric cancer – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Gastric cancer is when malignant or cancerous cells arise in the stomach. This cancer can appear in any part of the stomach […]

Carpal tunnel syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a nerve entrapment disorder that results from compression of the median nerve which winds its way through the wrist through a narrow passageway called the carpal tunnel. This compression typically causes pain, numbness, and tingling in the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and the thumb side of the ring finger, which are the areas […]

Myelodysplastic syndromes – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Myelodysplastic syndromes, or MDS, are a group of rare blood disorders associated with faulty development of blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can affect individuals of all ages, but it’s more common after the age of 60. Blood cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells, through a process called hematopoiesis. This involves a number of divisions, and eventually, […]

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