Myelodysplastic syndromes – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Myelodysplastic syndromes, or MDS, are a group of rare blood disorders associated with faulty development of blood cells in the bone marrow. MDS can affect individuals of all ages, but it’s more common after the age of 60. Blood cells develop from hematopoietic stem cells, through a process called hematopoiesis. This involves a number of divisions, and eventually, […]

Sleep apnea – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder which causes irregular breathing and snoring patterns that can ultimately cause apnea, which is where a person momentarily stops breathing altogether. The inability to get restful sleep can also lead to severe exhaustion. Individuals can have obstructive sleep apnea, central sleep apnea, or features of both. Obstructive sleep apnea is the most […]

Colorectal polyps – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! A colorectal polyp is a small clump of epithelial cells that form a small bump or overgrowth of tissue along the lining […]

Myelofibrosis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Myelofibrosis is a disease in which the bone marrow gets replaced by connective tissue in a process called fibrosis. Since the bone marrow’s main role is to produce erythrocytes, or red blood cells; leukocytes, or white blood cells; and thrombocytes, or platelets, the process of fibrosis interferes with production of these cell types. Now, many cells in the […]

Dissociative disorders – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Maybe you’ve had the experience of driving on “autopilot.” One minute you got in your car, and the next minute you’ve arrived at your destination, but you can’t actually remember the details of the drive. This is an example of normal, everyday dissociation, a term that describes a mental state of disconnection from what is going around you. […]

Non-hodgkin lymphoma – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

The term non-Hodgkin lymphoma, sometimes called NHL, can be broken down. Lymph- refers to lymphocytes and oma- refers to a tumor. “Non-Hodgkin” refers to the absence of a key cell that’s seen in Hodgkin lymphoma, the Reed-Sternberg cell. So, non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a tumor derived from lymphocytes – specifically B-cells and T-cells, which mainly live in the lymph […]

Pelvic inflammatory disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Pelvic inflammatory disease, or PID, is an infection of the upper female reproductive system, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. It […]

Carcinoid Syndrome – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Carcinoid, refers to a specific type of tumor, a carcinoid tumor, which causes neuroendocrine cells to secrete hormones, which lead to all sorts of symptoms like diarrhea, shortness of breath and flushing. So when these symptoms develop as a result of a carcinoid tumor, it’s called carcinoid syndrome. Neuroendocrine cells are found in tissues throughout the body, particularly […]

Inflammatory bowel disease: Treatment | Gastrointestinal system diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

– [Voiceover] Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disease, as its name suggests. And both types of the disease, both Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, usually last throughout one’s life after they’re diagnosed. And if they’re not properly managed, they can result in many serious or potentially even life-threatening complications. So, let’s briefly talk about the clinical […]

Syphilis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Learning medicine is hard work! Osmosis makes it easy. It takes your lectures and notes to create a personalized study plan with exclusive videos, practice questions and flashcards, and so much more. Try it free today! Treponema pallidum can be considered a gram-negative bacterium although its cell envelope differs from other gram-negative bacteria. T. pallidum causes syphilis, . […]

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