Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology


Posttraumatic stress disorder, also called
PTSD, happens when some memory of a past traumatic event—like war or sexual assault—causes
recurrent mental and physical distress. Now the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
5th edition or the DSM 5 categorizes PTSD as a “trauma-and-stressor-related-disorder”
that happens when the symptoms of an acute stress response persist for over a month. The main symptoms are psychological ones,
for example someone might re-experience their trauma through nightmares, flashbacks, and
intrusive thoughts, but these can lead to behavioral changes as well. Somebody might start to avoid environments
and situations that remind them of their trauma and feel a sense of hypervigilance where they
are constantly on guard or hyperarousal where they have this exaggerated startle response
to the smallest of triggers. Not surprisingly, all of these thoughts and
behaviours can lead to trouble sleeping and general irritability, which can lead to angry
outbursts. Interestingly, this pattern is different for
young children who are less likely to show distress, but instead they might use play
to express their memories, sometimes acting out scenes that trouble them. Whether or not someone develops PTSD in response
to trauma is determined by a number of different factors. For example, it’s clear that interpersonal
trauma, like rape or violent muggings, are more likely to result in PTSD than accidents
or environmental disasters. In addition, people that go through extreme
trauma as children are more likely to develop PTSD in response to other traumas faced in
their adult life. Having said that, if someone manages to develop
effective coping strategies for trauma including having a social support network, then that
can help with future traumas as well. As far as causes go, there are some clues
about biological factors related to development of PTSD. For instance, people with dysfunctions of
the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, deficits in the arousal and sleep-regulating systems
in the brain, and problems with the endogenous opioid system—which helps with pain control—have
all been shown to be at higher risk for developing PTSD. PTSD has also been linked to having a family
history of mood disorders or anxiety disorders. The precise mechanism, though, that ties all
of these relationships together has yet to be worked out. Treatment for PTSD can be kind of complicated,
since people with the disorder are often reluctant to to engage with the trauma in any way—in
their thoughts, emotions, or in conversations, which can make treatment really hard. Research has shown that exposure therapy,
which slowly exposing individuals to situations that cue recall of trauma, can be very effective. Group therapy is also a popular choice for
individuals with PTSD, because it provides survivors with a safe place to relive their
trauma in a supportive environment. In terms of medications, antidepressants,
in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (or SSRIs), can help to reduce
depressive symptoms that often accompany PTSD, and can help minimize flashbacks and nightmares. Anti-anxiety medications can help decrease
the heightened physiological arousal often seen in people with PTSD, and finally sleep-aids
can also be an helpful because lack of sleep and restlessness is such a serious problem
in PTSD. In addition to this, a lot of people with
PTSD self-medicate with alcohol and other substances which can actually worsen their
symptoms and their overall health. So an important treatment consideration for
both therapy and medications, is to help alleviate their symptoms while also safely managing
substance abuse issues. So as a quick recap—PTSD usually happens
after a violent interpersonal trauma and involves recurring thoughts that persist for over a
month, and can be managed with effective coping strategies and medications. Thanks for watching, you can help support
us by donating on patreon, or subscribing to our channel, or telling your friends about
us on social media.

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100 thoughts on “Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology”

  • Gabriel Alfredo Krauss says:

    Which software did you use for doing this kind of videos? Could you make a "making of" video to teach us so that we can replicate the ideia in other countries?

  • Tricia Bentzen says:

    very good well done too ssris have been effective for me anti anxiety is done by weed it works well and music business too

  • Marie Cederløv says:

    i have PTSD. but i get abilify as meducation which is an antipsycotic. i have hallusinations asnd i have difficulties with talking, its very hard to express myself in words. that makes other psycologist think that i have schizofrenia. i've had hallucinations since i was 9 years. and it started after i was exposed by rape and sexual assult from one in my family. which is why i was diagnosed with PTSD in the first place. is it correct to give me antipsycotics an nothing else? no antidepressants or anything?

  • I have PTSD and i dont try self medicating i just cry and avoid ppl and things and i have no sleep and lots of bad dreams when i do sleep and i am hyperventilate

  • IggySucksAtYoutube says:

    my mom aboused me as a kid and so her boyfriend im in 10th grade and 15 years old turing 16 next july i need help because i have being touched and i get nervous and want to cry when im touched ive never had a boyfriend because i know in realtionships you hug and hold hands and stuff and i hate being touched and it makes me feel lonely since im an "out cast" in school i feel like it keeps getting worse and i need help does anyone have any adivce?

  • I have PTSD because of the reforger operations in the time of the cold war. I am taking sleeping pills, Stilaze 2 mg. That helps. I have been to a sleeping hospital for examination and did tests on PTSD. They can measure it. I had to fight for my life several times and to stay alive. I am a Fleming from Belgium, worked directly for the Americans. I still have a Nato clearance. I did my job for NATO. All kind of things happened during the cold war. I am not allowed to say anything about it. That is forbidden. I like the Americans, more then the Belgians I worked with. I have a better life now.

  • IIKekethedollII Dunham says:

    i have chronic severe PTSD as a result of being a victim at a very young age of 3 of almost child molestation by my own biological father. however i have moved on from that. and realized why he did it now its because he has mental illness that can explain his actions very clearly. ( He has Bipolar, Scheziophrenia, Boarderline Personality Disorder ) and he has Huntington's Disease ( not mental but still one of his problems ), i said someday i wanna visit him ( with Parent near me of course ), also the PTSD wasn't just caused by that. it was also caused by Violent arguments i had with my dad when i was on the onset of Puberty one day it got violent when he kicked my door and made a hole in it i shouted to him go to hell. then slammed the door on his hand and locked it. mom and dad fought he pushed her down ( not very hard but still enough to make her fall on her butt to the ground ), she shouted for him to get away from me and not to touch me ( ie: slap, shove ) i basically shrivelled up in a corner crying and shaking like a leaf falling. he stormed off and left for hours. came back the next day. acted like nothing happened. i'm still not done, in 5th grade. the whole entire grade was basically laughing at me and making fun of me. the teachers didn't help me they only watched as i suffered meltdowns. one noticed however. took me outside and tried to understand what was going on i was clearly having the first sign of " Asperger's Syndrome " but they were oblivious to what was happening because i was such a happy and cheerful child. but then i shouted " Shut up! " on the top of my lungs because clearly other teachers came to check and see what that noise was. it only got worse from there. i ended up so depressed that i threaten suicide in front of all the students. they asked if i was really gonna do it i said yes, why would i wanna live anymore after this? they simply kept asking me over and over again. beyond that point i became severely depressed i started dressing up in black, no smile on my face no more. hair always in my face. always looking down not up. very very quiet and withdrawn from society. stopped taking care of myself. ( I didn't care what my apperence looks like anymore ) became so withdrawn i didn't care if i had friends and if i did they would have to promise to me they would not betray me. if they did. well… i will ruin there life. i'm still not done. this whole entire bullying thing happened from 5th grade all the way until 8th grade when i pretended to be sick and then actually got sick ( surprise surprise ) and ended up being removed from Public school into homeschooling because clearly i had a fear of going to school. years later. i find out i got a cancerous brain tumor, ( i didn't really care at that time because i'm not fazed by crazy shit that happens to me ) few months ago i had a violent fight that almost ended up in death by choking. my grandma and her sister were fighting i tried to break it up. but the sister told me to shut up and i needed to stay out of their business i got infuriated and confronted her psychopathic tendencies of extreme mood changes, munipulation and being a total drama queen. she told me i was crazy and needed help from a therapist. i got even more pissed off and charged at her and pushed her shoulder ( shoving ) she slapped me and told me i need to be put in a mental psych ward. big mistake…. i came up to her again and growled so angrily and put my hands towards her throat. and tried to choke her but i resisted and put my hands towards her throat. clearly the first sign of development of a new mental disorder. and now. i am suffering from the hands of my grandma. who is being too bitchy to give a shit about how i feel. and only cares about herself she gives no sympathy she always says " I know what you feel " i tell her back " no you don't you never will unless you have been in my shoes. " then she brings up her childhood. in my head i'm rolling my eyes knowing she'll only keep on doing it over and over again. if i bring something up and say " no you don't " she will say it again. fuckin' gets on my nerves like crazy.

  • Anybody have this thing where if you experience something really sad or not a thing you’d like to be reminded of and your mind just forgets what happened? Like, a few examples: When I was in Primary, I sang a song I made myself and was super proud of and my whole school laughed at me. That’s all I can remember, I don’t even remember anything else in that year! And in 3rd to 4th grade, I had serious depression and tried killing myself 2-3 times. …And that’s all I can remember too! I kinda recall that seriously messing with my grades in 5th grade, mostly math.

    Edit: Oh yeah in case your wondering I’m positive that I couldn’t forget with age because I’m 11 right now and in 6th grade.

  • At first I said I had PTSD so I could have something to hide behind in an argument. But then I found out that there were lots of people who disagree with my bad ideas so now I know for sure that I have it.

  • What do you know about Complex PTSD? I'm pretty sure I have that from being neglected abused and tortured my whole life. I've even almost gotten killed. Could you maybe look into it and bring awareness to that issue?

  • Tracy Casanova says:

    Exposure therapy is not necessarily gradual. We discourage disclosing details of trauma in the group setting as it can trigger other patients and it is best for people to process their trauma individually with a therapist. Also, sleep aids should only be used in the short-term.

  • I have never been in the military before. I was diagnosed with PTSD, shortly before my divorce.
    I have been divorced six years.

    Thank u again to the men and women in the military, thank u for your service❤️

  • I suffer from ptsd from domestic abuse when i was 10-13. I suffered from insomia due to distubing thoughts. I went from a top student, to a delinquent who was to smart for my own good. Councilling was shit and the depression made me irritable and prone to violence. In DA the abused usually become the abuser or continue getting abused by future partners. But i started smoking weed and all my problems faded. I could sleep, I was happy, i ate more than i had in years as ive had an eating disorder (I still dont eat most fruit or veg). I now have a dependance for the Green but its more affective than Citralopram, Olanzapine and Diazapams. I got put in a secure childrens home and I had to deal with my mental issues myself by behaving in an enviroment where all you wanna do is fight, cause shit and go home. i struggled to behave alot lol. But i got released and am trying to be as normal as I can even tho ill never be normal. I learned that life and poker are the same, its not the cards youve been dealt, its the face you show through out the game.

  • BluBerry Milkshake says:

    On Clare Siobhan's channel, She has a sim called Abel Villareal. He suffered from PTSD because his mother Elsa burned to death in front of him when he was a kid. Abel was originally a happy kid, but after the fire, he was never the same again. He was diagnosed with PTSD when he was a teen due to his mother's death in front of him. Abel wasn't so good at controlling his anger and emotions. He had his friends and family to support him, but it still wasn't enough. He ran away when he was 17 because he felt that everyone was moving on. His dad remarried, his sister Lilith was moving on from Elsa too. But Abel still wasn't ready to leave Elsa behind. So, he stayed in Sims 4 granite falls until he found himself again. When he came home, he aged up into an adult and cured his PTSD.

  • As a 29yr old woman with PTSD, coupled with depression & anxiety, with a hint of reoccurring night terrors, who also is a recovering heroin addict, thank you for posting this short informative video about PTSD, which had sadly become a disorder many individuals suffer from, yet not many understand how debilitating & extremely overwhelming it can be. That’s exactly why some call it the “silent scream” or “hidden wound”.

  • Läzzÿ kätëlyn says:

    Okkkkk seems to me I have a number of problems
    1~ I have ADHD and I take medication for it
    2~ I have depression… I am a very happy person all the time or am i…. I’m not being “edgy” or anything like that it’s just that I ALWAYS try to be nice to others I always compliment others smile and everything good I’m between but what people don’t know is that……I’m sad…. some people call me “annoying” “loud” or a “stuck up” I’m “annoying” and “loud” or whatever just to make others smile because in this day in age EVERYONE IS SAD my family has depression and FRIENDS and some of the said they wanted to kill themselves……and it makes me sad………. I have symptoms of depression but I don’t wanna get all into it ps. I’m a Virgo so I don’t know how to use my would to help me but I do know how to use my word for others.
    3~ I have PTSD as a kid I was touched VERY wrongly by my uncles I was told once to rub there uhh never mind I was so scared after that I didn’t tell anybody until a YEAR later because I don’t like having others worry about me “I’m fine” sooooo…….. ever since then I have always been afraid of men AND I STILL DO IM IM MIDDLE SCHOOL!! I’m scared of my grandpa my dad my YOUNGER brother and I don’t really know why I’m just afraid that men just wanna touch me and shove there uhhh- moving on I’m also ERY skinny and I hate myself for it but there’s no way I could fight off a man if I ever needed to and that just makes me SUPER SCARED
    4~I can’t remember what it’s called again it starts with a “p” kind of like anxiety but the fear of having something bad so I always try to prepare….
    5~ sleep problems and wight problems because I have ADHD (god bless [that was sarcasm]) I have problems sleeping I can’t remember the proper name for it but I have troubles sleeping I also have wight problems I’m SUPER skinny and hate it like I said before
    6~ I hate my body and I tend to criticize myself a LOT. And sometimes I wonder what it would be like just to be like the other girls TALL average wight STRONG and…..loved and pretty…..
    PSS. I KNOW THAT 5-6 ARMT ACTUALLY DISORDERS (kind of) THERE JUST MY THOUGHTS the others are tho so “knock yourself out” DONT ACTUALLY DO I CARE FOR YOU EVEN IF THE OTHERS DONT

    Wow you read all of this I’m glad you care ٩(♡ε♡ )۶

  • Intense exercise/ anything that makes you control your breath and sweat also helps. Working out was a game changer when it felt like nothing else worked. The gym became my sanctuary for restoring my body and mind. It was amazing for me along side therapy,meds and other lifestyle changes.

  • Anyway you guys could do a video on Complex PTSD. I was hoping this video would show the difference between micro & macro trauma. Suffering with complex ptsd I know I would really like to see a video out there about it.

  • I've never understood how exposure therapy would work with someone who has survived assault or other violent crime and had the trauma made worse when being unable to access help from authorities like law enforcement

    I mean how would that even work?

  • I have a diagnosis of Severe Prolonged PTSD. I am also a former counselor with the VA with a majority of my clients having PTSD. I admire for putting this video out. The public needs to know more about this condition.

  • Patrick Bonneville says:

    Isn't it great how even the kindest explination of PTSD makes the sufferer out to be some asshole that needs to be handled -_-

  • Gingivitic Cinema says:

    These days, I have had quite a few angry outbursts, all of which happened when I came home from college. I cried so many times, that I lost my count. I was anxious a lot.

    I had a row with my mother a few days ago, and I was shocked when she had a crying and shouting meltdown after a heated discussion with me. She even broke a frying pan handle.

    Thankfully, today I'm feeling much better. I hope I'll continue living a normal life again, soon.

  • I honestly dont know if i have ptsd. But i sure have outburns. For an example thinking back of my bullying. I've did this while listening to a song and i started to cry (i rarely cry) and reaching for pills. It happends 1-2 time a month but its really bad. Image middle of the night you listen to a song and it trigger your trauma. Then you try to cut off pills and attempt suicide… I also avoid going outside without my mom. Im afraid of peoples judgement

  • Cornelia stronghovel says:

    oof I am a kid and I feel like I have it cause I remember when I was 10 I always used to play with dolls that the kids got abused (I am 11 now) I never can't sleep cause sometimes I get nightmares or just something keeping me up (not games or anything like that) I can't sleep without the windows closed the door closed the lights on and the wardrobe closed also sometimes I get emotional breakdowns where I would cry for hours and sometimes so hard that I can't breathe now I don't have those since I started horse riding

  • I got in a really bad car accident when I was 6 and I almost died and the other night I was sleeping with the blanket the firefighter gave me and I had a flashback of me in the flipped car crying trying to get out the car and then me waking up in the hospital. It kinda scared me to this day that me and my family could have died

  • I have PTSD, I zone out easily and have flashbacks on what happened, I hyperventilate, cry and scream “it’s all my fault”

  • Question:Do you have to have gone through a near death experience to be diagnosed? I was severely bullied as a child but my parents still deny it years later but in recent months I have started to really struggle sleeping and have flashbacks when ever I read/see/hear a similar senario that happend while I was being bullied and sometimes it even escalates to mental breakdowns.

  • Yea i have ptsd but my symptoms neve persisted for a month. Like I can't watch horror movies. I just figured out its because of ptsd. Group therapy. The only time I've ever been ok with a horror movie is with a group. Wow. Wtf. That was one time and i still remember it fondly. What the hell.

  • I take sertraline for PTSD yes I did self medicate and yes I really find facing my trauma difficult and feel worse after a session but apparently if O stick to it some day it will help maybe I should give it another go. I have come so far an if you are suffering just know there is hope and if you want to talk message me ok anytime yeah I'm talking to you all ✌

  • BoneNapper 123 says:

    But is this true because all these things happen to me accept the nightmare thing in the first part,I rage,I cry,I stress,I hurt people,this has been going on for 5 years for me so I don’t know if this is even true for me

  • autism spectrum colours says:

    What a bullshit there or people
    Crimenals setting people hardworking people in this
    Type of warefare their using
    This term of co operations
    To harm people on work place

    Or crimenals who use it
    To harm u that so call
    Secret police force that use
    Alot of narcissistic and psychopaths and all the
    Agents tactics to harm people
    On the street its is explain able

    With good details about it
    Who this people really or
    What organisations u dealing with

  • Moon Turns The Tides says:

    Do you have a hard time recalling what Happened to you? I have blocked out most of my childhood. I get so frustrated trying to even figure out what happened.

  • I have ptsd I'm 19 I got it bc I have turama form my mother with bad alcohol problems I struggle with anxiety every day whenever I feel unloved, stressed and pressured I feel intense anger I'm irritable within normal soical interaction

  • It annoys me slightly how PTSD is only really associated with military or assault. I was diagnosed with PTSD at the age of 13 after years of bullying. It doesn’t just occur in veterans or assault survivors

  • i just had a full blown ptsd attack while i’m at church because there’s this girl who was having a seizure and then i start panicking and hyperventilating and having difficulty breathing because i was having flashback when my father died and now i feel so emberassed because almost all the people who saw me crying and almost all of the people that go to that church are in the same college as i am (i went to a religious college so that’s why) and know i don’t think i want to go back to college ever again . i hate this i hate this.

  • Hugh mungous Dildeaux says:

    I developed severe ptsd after being exposed to (investigating) extremely violent and gruesome crimes. I can’t even watch a movie that involves people being hurt or anything that involves suffering as I just cry like a sook.

  • Today I had reviewed my medical records. I seen post traumatic stress disorder. I was unfamiliar with this. I talked to my counselor about major depression, SAD, and anxiety disorder but the ptsd got me off guard. I’m just confused.

  • Cute_space _Fox says:

    PTSD is a terrible thing, I know this through having it due to sexual abuse when I was younger. I just want to say though, if you do have PTSD don’t be scared to see a therapist or a doctor

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