How Are New Medications Developed?

How Are New Medications Developed?


People take medicine every day, but not many
people know how arduous of process that those drugs have to go through to get from idea
to your body. Hey guys Julia here for DNews The pharmaceutical industry is big business.
According to a study published in the Annual British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology world
pharmaceutical sales are approximately 365.6 billion dollars. “Big Pharma” is often
portrayed as the villain. Sometimes rightfully so, think of a recent example of a company
acquiring a life saving drug and jacking u p the price 4,000 percent overnight. But it’s
not always about greed. One of the reasons for the high price of drugs is simply it’s
so expensive to develop a new one. Developing a new drug or medicine is a slow
and expensive road. It can take decades and billions of dollars before a drug ever reaches
the FDA — who then has to approve it for use. According to The Association of the British
Pharmaceutical Industry for every successful new drug about 25,000 chemical compounds were
tested, on average 25 of these will have gone into clinical trials and just five will receive
approval for marketing. And according to a report published by the Tufts Center for the
Study of Drug Development (CSDD) it costs more than $2.6 billion to make a drug that
finally receives approval. So why does it take so much time and money?
Well the FDA, thankfully has established strict guidelines for drug manufacturers as well
as, quality control measures like good laboratory practices and guidelines for clinical trials. With that in mind, drug discovery often starts
with basic research. Scientists might find mechanisms behind cellular receptors, ion
channels and enzymes. For example, research in the 60s on neurotransmitters led researchers
to discover an imbalance of brain chemicals might have something to do with depression.
Knowing that, drug companies could get to work on a way to fix that imbalance. Shout
out to basic research! Woo woo! Historically medicines were discovered in
nature, like bark from the willow tree which ancient cultures used to relieve pain. Turns
out, the bark contained a compound which modern pharmaceutical companies used to make aspirin. Your granddad’s pharmaceutical researcher
had to create new compounds by hand,and could only make about 50–100 new compounds every
year. But today, using genetics and computer models, researchers can quickly predict what
compounds will work and create a bunch of samples using specialized robots. According
to a study published in The Pharmaceutical Journal, as many as 10,000 compounds may be
considered and whittled down to just 10 to 20. From there, these compounds must be tested.
Drugs must go through rigorous testing to make sure they do what researchers suspect
and that they don’t have overwhelmingly negative side effects. First compounds must go through either phenotypic
screens or target-based screens. Phenotype screening measures the test compound’s ability
to affect cells, tissues or whole organisms. It’s pretty general. Target screening measures
the effect of compounds on a purified target protein in a test tube, so it’s way more specific.
It’s called an in-vitro assay, and it targets the direct effect a molecule or compound has
down the protein. Even with the best phenotype screening, the target-screening is way more
valuable to the scientists and regulators. Only compounds which show positive activity
are developed further. They are made in larger quantities and subjected to more and more
tests. Some compounds are tested in animals, then they go on to clinical trials, which
test the compounds in humans in tightly-controlled, highly-regulated studies. Phase one trials
test the safety of the new drugs, phase two tests efficacy, and phase three are the holy
grail of science: double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. After all of this, if the drug does what’s
it’s supposed to do predictably, it can be submitted to the FDA for market approval.
So you imagine with all this time, effort, money and a huge failure rate, pharmaceutical
companies tend to focus on drugs they think will have the best financial return. Over on testtube news, I dig deeper into how
exactly drug prices are decided here in the United States. Go any other questions about how stuff is
made or about the scientific process? Let us know and remember to use the hashtag ASKDNEWS

Author:

96 thoughts on “How Are New Medications Developed?”

  • medication industry: " hello there :D, I see that you are feeling like shit and might die, but all this can be avoided if you pay me 9999.99$ "
    patient:" I don't have that kind of money"
    medication industry:" please fill out this form so that you can be dismissed and be on your way home :D."
    logic: " what the fuck "

  • I don't need meds anymore because of a vegan diet my health improved greatly!

    As for med prices going up so much seems like a joke, because medsin Europe are not nearly as expensive and don't suddenly go up like that. It is mainly a thing in america so clearly greed is the culprit.

  • Medications are developed to sustain the pain or disease of a patient but never to heal it. If one medicine can heal the problem, the drug companies will go bankrupt.

    Their motto is "keep them alive and sick"…

  • BlueBeamProductions says:

    Let the anti drugs commence! drugs cause autism and they cause brain damage.

    and to those people that believe that i say, go chew on some elephant tusks you hippies.

  • The FDA's drug approval process is a disaster. It is way over-regulated and the result is that drugs become a lot more expensive. Government forced drug prices would be a disaster, crushing innovation and resulting in thousands more suffering & dying w/o new treatments. To lower prices, overhaul the dysfunctional FDA.

  • Am I the only one who is annoyed by the grammar mistake in the title??????? IF THERE'S AN "ARE" THERE SHOULDN'T BE A WORD THAT ENDS WITH -ED.

  • This is why your local GNC pushes unregulated herbs that have had little to no testing and have not been approved for treatment of any condition. They can leverage marketing to get you to buy a sugar pill at close to the cost of a drug. This means major profit! From "protein powder" to "diet pills" none will get you the results you are after on their own. Note that they all say "to be taken by healthy people who are using a diet and exercise program".

  • I hate it when people take medications because they feel depressed. Honestly, stop making evil people rich by ingesting poisons to make you feel "happy". There are other better and safer ways to be happy.

  • #countryboycansurvive says:

    Testing = give to the public and see what happens. As evidence by all the class action law suits all over the TV when drugs cause problems. Dozens of drugs have on going lawsuits. So it's obvious the people are used as Guinea pigs.

  • #countryboycansurvive says:

    Nature provides Everything we need to be healthy in mind and body. It's the law of the universe. There is always a balance. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For every illness in nature there is a cure in nature. People are animals, mammals, and part of nature. When humans try to out do nature it always fails. They can not duplicate nature. Synthetic drugs cause all kinds of problems. Because it's not natural. Humans have some nerve to think they can do a better job then nature and the balance of the universe. They end up throwing things in the body out of balance, and you need drugs to counter the effects of other drugs. FRankin foods, GMO's, and chemical fake flavors and food fillers are destroying our health on a grand scale. Food = nutrition. Food = good for you. If it does not have nutrition or if it is not good for you then it is NOT food. It's poison. Poison don't have to kill you. Anything unhealthy to the body is poison.

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  • Lucifer morningstar says:

    i barely take medicines, i mostly let me body naturally care itself and just trust in my own immune system…but when it gets realy really bad, than ill use medicines. alot of people use medicines for every little things.

  • Scientific Revolutionary says:

    Before clinical trials, the drug is firstly tested on either human cells on tissues, if the drug is administrated to a certain part of the body, but if a drug has an overall effect on a whole body then it is tested on 2 or more living organisms. This is to test the toxicity of the drug, some side effects as well as a safe dose to use,
    After is clinical trials on healthy volunteers, to see how the drug works on an overall general basis. They start at low dosages, and slowly increase to find the optimum dosage and to see its effectiveness on humans. Then after this double blind and placebo trials take place to see any differences or effectiveness, etc.

  • the pills that get bigger as they get lower in the thumbnail looks like one pill shrinking or growing as you scroll up or down in your subscription box 🙂

  • youtxbebroadcast11ur says:

    I thought universities and governments subsidise research after which commercially parties suck ppl dry for what is found. Was I wrong or what ;(

  • fun fact: older asprin medicines actually came from beaver anal glands as they would chew and feed upon the willow bark..

  • fun fact: older asprin medicines actually came from beaver anal glands as they would chew and feed upon the willow bark..

  • next time…share the history of the Rockefellers and there monopoly/evil in regards to the medical drug industry…or do the true facts scare dnews?

  • Why all this negativity, bro? Look! Julia looks nice, this channel is nice, the content is nice and Julian look nice… Or did I already say that.

  • Marshall Fleming says:

    0:56 "For every successful new drug … just 5 will receive approval for marketing"

    Wait, does this mean 4 out of 5 drugs approved by the FDA are not viable?

  • pharmaceutical companies spend more on marketing then research according to the Washington Post. can d news make a vid about that? https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2015/02/11/big-pharmaceutical-companies-are-spending-far-more-on-marketing-than-research/

  • holy grail of science only works if you publish all of the resultss. When only positive results are published it doesnt matter if the study is double blind and placebo. Eventually you will prove smoking cures cancer.

    Drug science is really not good science. Scientific community really needs to get its shit together.

  • How steroids are made? where they come from? I have seen on YouTube People Just Boiling and making? explain DNEWS AND JULIA 🙂

  • For anyone interested, they mentioned the screening to FDA testing of the process, but not the creation part. It's called combinatorial chemistry, basically where chemical libraries are created through different combinations of reagents. It can become a real headache when you get into the specifics of it (I studied it at uni last sem, not fun), but just about every pharmaceutical company does it, without giving out their testing info (if they run into a super-drug, why share it with other companies?). Combi -chem is either 'target' or 'diversity oriented' in their goals, and created either through parallel or split-and-pool synthesis (I studied liquid-phase parallel synthesis… writing the paper was a nightmare cause there's almost nothing on the web/literature about it). If anyone read this, you can use those key words to look up stuff. It's a lot easier with this background info.

    Doubt anyone's interested though. It really isn't interesting in any way, at least not after you've had to write a paper on it.

  • Soo if El Chapo played along with the law and lobbied politicians instead of making himself a target he too could have had become a player in the pharmaceutical drug market.

  • I'm just curious as to how they know the long-term effects of certain drugs or compounds. It's possible to extract that information from initial testing?

    *not an anti-vaxxer

  • On a serious, completely unfunny note… The process in which drugs are determined to be safe by the FDA has at least some influence from big pharma's ability to lobby. Because of this lobbying, there have been drugs over the years that went through the approval process too quickly, and were never properly studied. Drugs like Paxil for example, and even surgical implants like certain types of knee replacements have been the subjects of massive lawsuits filed by patients who only found out about the side effects of their drugs when it was too late. Even then, many drugs remain on the market.

  • valeriano garcia negro says:

    what is not talked about is the risk, that drug companies take in developing new drugs. that is why a drug that may cost 1.00 to make can sell for 600.00 and people think that's crazy and abusive. Well they do not understand the financial, and legal risk that company took in inventing the drug. That is the reason why so many companies do not want to invest in a drug that will cure (as an example) HIV, because the financial risk for a company would be very high, and then the government will make them give the pills away for free.

  • Such a poor explanation of everything. Most of the time the speaker tends to loose the focus of explanatory content.
    SUGGESTION IS TO MODIFY THIS VIDEO ASAP !

  • What about all the public money spent to develop these drugs and how almost all American drug companies want profit,high profits, and will tell you if you can't pay then you can die. Companies are not people ,drug companies lack of compassion proves this. These companies will charge as much as they can get for products that cost very little including development and anyone that says otherwise is a lying crook. FDR called them money changers,lol fitting I think

  • The big lie (one of many) by the pharmaceutical companies is that their drugs are so expensive due to the cost of research. Much of the research is done by Universities; often at tax-payer expense. Then the same tax-payers are over-charged for the drug and their tax dollars used to subsidize the outrageous prices. The ridiculous cost of drugs has nothing to do with the cost of research and everything to do with making pharmaceutical companies some of the most profitable businesses in the world.
    Another big lie, is that we even need most of the drugs at all. In many cases, you are just as likely to have an adverse reaction as you are to have a therapeutic reaction. And lifestyle changes are much more effective at reducing your risk of heart disease, diabetes, cancers, depression and anxiety…. Eat right, exercise and manage stress better, and you will need far less, if any snake oil.

  • The FDA operates a pay to play mentality. And why would a drug company cure? When they can simply reduce the harm when taking a pill a day. Big Phara should not exsist. We fund a military with 700 Trillion, but can't take 10% and fund cures? Profit is evil

  • All types of medicine in the end will have side effects. We don't fully understand Biology, or molecular interactions even with all the technology we have today. Medicines should only be taken as the last resort. But people today take medicines, especially antibiotics like its a medicine picnic. Down the road, there will be many more new diseases and problems due to overuse of medicines.

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